Faith in India: Tolerance and Segregation


(Indranil Mukherjee/AFP through Getty Photographs)

This research is Pew Analysis Middle’s most complete, in-depth exploration of India up to now. For this report, we surveyed 29,999 Indian adults (together with 22,975 who establish as Hindu, 3,336 who establish as Muslim, 1,782 who establish as Sikh, 1,011 who establish as Christian, 719 who establish as Buddhist, 109 who establish as Jain and 67 who establish as belonging to a different faith or as religiously unaffiliated). Interviews for this nationally consultant survey have been performed face-to-face underneath the course of RTI Worldwide from Nov. 17, 2019, to March 23, 2020.

To enhance respondent comprehension of survey questions and to make sure all questions have been culturally applicable, Pew Analysis Middle adopted a multi-phase questionnaire improvement course of that included professional evaluation, focus teams, cognitive interviews, a pretest and a regional pilot survey earlier than the nationwide survey. The questionnaire was developed in English and translated into 16 languages, independently verified by skilled linguists with native proficiency in regional dialects.

Respondents have been chosen utilizing a probability-based pattern design that will enable for sturdy evaluation of all main non secular teams in India – Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains – in addition to all main regional zones. Information was weighted to account for the completely different chances of choice amongst respondents and to align with demographic benchmarks for the Indian grownup inhabitants from the 2011 census. The survey is calculated to have coated 98% of Indians ages 18 and older and had an 86% nationwide response price.

For extra data, see the Methodology for this report. The questions used on this evaluation could be discovered right here.

India is majority Hindu, but religious minorities have sizable populations

Greater than 70 years after India grew to become free from colonial rule, Indians usually really feel their nation has lived as much as one in all its post-independence beliefs: a society the place followers of many religions can dwell and apply freely.

India’s large inhabitants is various in addition to religious. Not solely do a lot of the world’s Hindus, Jains and Sikhs dwell in India, however it is also house to one of many world’s largest Muslim populations and to hundreds of thousands of Christians and Buddhists.

A significant new Pew Analysis Middle survey of faith throughout India, primarily based on practically 30,000 face-to-face interviews of adults performed in 17 languages between late 2019 and early 2020 (earlier than the COVID-19 pandemic), finds that Indians of all these non secular backgrounds overwhelmingly say they’re very free to apply their faiths.

That is one in a collection of Pew Analysis Middle reviews on India primarily based on a survey of 29,999 Indian adults performed Nov. 17, 2019, to March 23, 2020, in addition to demographic information from the Indian Census and different authorities sources. Different reviews could be discovered right here:

Indians see non secular tolerance as a central a part of who they’re as a nation. Throughout the foremost non secular teams, most individuals say it is vitally essential to respect all religions to be “actually Indian.” And tolerance is a non secular in addition to civic worth: Indians are united within the view that respecting different religions is a vital a part of what it means to be a member of their very own non secular group.

Indians feel they have religious freedom, see respecting all religions as a core value

These shared values are accompanied by quite a few beliefs that cross non secular strains. Not solely do a majority of Hindus in India (77%) imagine in karma, however an similar proportion of Muslims do, too. A 3rd of Christians in India (32%) – along with 81% of Hindus – say they imagine within the purifying energy of the Ganges River, a central perception in Hinduism. In Northern India, 12% of Hindus and 10% of Sikhs, together with 37% of Muslims, identification with Sufism, a mystical custom most intently related to Islam. And the overwhelming majority of Indians of all main non secular backgrounds say that respecting elders is essential to their religion.

But, regardless of sharing sure values and non secular beliefs – in addition to residing in the identical nation, underneath the identical structure – members of India’s main non secular communities usually don’t really feel they’ve a lot in widespread with each other. Nearly all of Hindus see themselves as very completely different from Muslims (66%), and most Muslims return the sentiment, saying they’re very completely different from Hindus (64%). There are just a few exceptions: Two-thirds of Jains and about half of Sikhs say they’ve rather a lot in widespread with Hindus. However usually, individuals in India’s main non secular communities are likely to see themselves as very completely different from others.

India’s religious groups generally see themselves as very different from each other

This notion of distinction is mirrored in traditions and habits that preserve the separation of India’s non secular teams. For instance, marriages throughout non secular strains – and, relatedly, non secular conversions – are exceedingly uncommon (see Chapter 3). Many Indians, throughout a spread of non secular teams, say it is vitally essential to cease individuals of their group from marrying into different non secular teams. Roughly two-thirds of Hindus in India need to forestall interreligious marriages of Hindu girls (67%) or Hindu males (65%). Even bigger shares of Muslims really feel equally: 80% say it is vitally essential to cease Muslim girls from marrying outdoors their faith, and 76% say it is vitally essential to cease Muslim males from doing so.

Stopping religious intermarriage is a high priority for Hindus, Muslims and others in India

Furthermore, Indians usually persist with their very own non secular group relating to their associates. Hindus overwhelmingly say that almost all or all of their shut associates are additionally Hindu. After all, Hindus make up the vast majority of the inhabitants, and on account of sheer numbers, could also be extra more likely to work together with fellow Hindus than with individuals of different religions. However even amongst Sikhs and Jains, who every kind a sliver of the nationwide inhabitants, a big majority say their associates come primarily or completely from their small non secular group.

Fewer Indians go as far as to say that their neighborhoods ought to consist solely of individuals from their very own non secular group. Nonetheless, many would like to maintain individuals of sure religions out of their residential areas or villages. For instance, many Hindus (45%) say they’re positive with having neighbors of all different religions – be they Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist or Jain – however an similar share (45%) say they’d not be prepared to just accept followers of at the least one in all these teams, together with greater than one-in-three Hindus (36%) who are not looking for a Muslim as a neighbor. Amongst Jains, a majority (61%) say they’re unwilling to have neighbors from at the least one in all these teams, together with 54% who wouldn’t settle for a Muslim neighbor, though practically all Jains (92%) say they’d be prepared to just accept a Hindu neighbor.

Substantial minorities would not accept followers of other religions as neighbors

Indians, then, concurrently categorical enthusiasm for non secular tolerance and a constant desire for retaining their non secular communities in segregated spheres – they dwell collectively individually. These two sentiments could seem paradoxical, however for a lot of Indians they don’t seem to be.

Certainly, many take each positions, saying it is very important be tolerant of others and expressing a need to restrict private connections throughout non secular strains. Indians who favor a religiously segregated society additionally overwhelmingly emphasize non secular tolerance as a core worth. For instance, amongst Hindus who say it is vitally essential to cease the interreligious marriage of Hindu girls, 82% additionally say that respecting different religions is essential to what it means to be Hindu. This determine is almost similar to the 85% who strongly worth non secular tolerance amongst those that are in no way involved with stopping interreligious marriage.

In different phrases, Indians’ idea of non secular tolerance doesn’t essentially contain the blending of non secular communities. Whereas individuals in some nations might aspire to create a “melting pot” of various non secular identities, many Indians appear to favor a rustic extra like a patchwork cloth, with clear strains between teams.

The scale of Hindu nationalism in India

Most Hindus in India say being Hindu, being able to speak Hindi are very important to be ‘truly’ Indian

One in all these non secular fault strains – the connection between India’s Hindu majority and the nation’s smaller non secular communities – has explicit relevance in public life, particularly lately underneath the ruling Bharatiya Janata Celebration (BJP). Led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the BJP is commonly described as selling a Hindu nationalist ideology.

The survey finds that Hindus are likely to see their non secular identification and Indian nationwide identification as intently intertwined: Almost two-thirds of Hindus (64%) say it is vitally essential to be Hindu to be “actually” Indian.

Support for BJP higher among Hindu voters who link being Hindu, speaking Hindi with Indian identity

Most Hindus (59%) additionally hyperlink Indian identification with having the ability to communicate Hindi – one in all dozens of languages which might be broadly spoken in India. And these two dimensions of nationwide identification – having the ability to communicate Hindi and being a Hindu – are intently related. Amongst Hindus who say it is vitally essential to be Hindu to be actually Indian, absolutely 80% additionally say it is vitally essential to communicate Hindi to be actually Indian.

The BJP’s enchantment is larger amongst Hindus who intently affiliate their non secular identification and the Hindi language with being “actually Indian.” Within the 2019 nationwide elections, 60% of Hindu voters who assume it is vitally essential to be Hindu and to talk Hindi to be actually Indian solid their vote for the BJP, in contrast with solely a 3rd amongst Hindu voters who really feel much less strongly about each these elements of nationwide identification.

General, amongst those that voted within the 2019 elections, three-in-ten Hindus take all three positions: saying it is vitally essential to be Hindu to be actually Indian; saying the identical about talking Hindi; and casting their poll for the BJP.

These views are significantly extra widespread amongst Hindus within the largely Hindi-speaking Northern and Central areas of the nation, the place roughly half of all Hindu voters fall into this class, in contrast with simply 5% within the South.

Among Hindus, large regional divides on views of national identity and politics
How regions of India are defined in this report
Among Hindu voters in India, religious nationalism is accompanied by heightened desire for religious segregation, greater religious observance

Whether or not Hindus who meet all three of those standards qualify as “Hindu nationalists” could also be debated, however they do categorical a heightened need for sustaining clear strains between Hindus and different non secular teams relating to whom they marry, who their associates are and whom they dwell amongst. For instance, amongst Hindu BJP voters who hyperlink nationwide identification with each faith and language, 83% say it is vitally essential to cease Hindu girls from marrying into one other faith, in contrast with 61% amongst different Hindu voters.

This group additionally tends to be extra religiously observant: 95% say faith is essential of their lives, and roughly three-quarters say they pray each day (73%). By comparability, amongst different Hindu voters, a smaller majority (80%) say faith is essential of their lives, and about half (53%) pray each day.

Though Hindu BJP voters who hyperlink nationwide identification with faith and language are extra inclined to assist a religiously segregated India, additionally they are extra seemingly than different Hindu voters to precise optimistic opinions about India’s non secular variety. Almost two-thirds (65%) of this group – Hindus who say that being a Hindu and having the ability to communicate Hindi are essential to be actually Indian and who voted for the BJP in 2019 – say non secular variety advantages India, in contrast with about half (47%) of different Hindu voters.

Hindus who see Hindu and Indian identity as closely tied express positive views about diversity

This discovering means that for a lot of Hindus, there isn’t a contradiction between valuing non secular variety (at the least in precept) and feeling that Hindus are one way or the other extra authentically Indian than fellow residents who comply with different religions.

Amongst Indians total, there isn’t a overwhelming consensus on the advantages of non secular variety. On stability, extra Indians see variety as a profit than view it as a legal responsibility for his or her nation: Roughly half (53%) of Indian adults say India’s non secular variety advantages the nation, whereas a few quarter (24%) see variety as dangerous, with related figures amongst each Hindus and Muslims. However 24% of Indians don’t take a transparent place both method – they are saying variety neither advantages nor harms the nation, or they do not want to reply the query. (See Chapter 2 for a dialogue of attitudes towards variety.)

India’s Muslims categorical delight in being Indian whereas figuring out communal tensions, needing segregation

Vast majority of India’s Muslims say Indian culture is superior

India’s Muslim group, the second-largest non secular group within the nation, traditionally has had a sophisticated relationship with the Hindu majority. The 2 communities usually have lived peacefully aspect by aspect for hundreds of years, however their shared historical past is also checkered by civil unrest and violence. Most not too long ago, whereas the survey was being performed, demonstrations broke out in elements of New Delhi and elsewhere over the federal government’s new citizenship regulation, which creates an expedited path to citizenship for immigrants from some neighboring nations – however not Muslims.

Immediately, India’s Muslims virtually unanimously say they’re very proud to be Indian (95%), and so they categorical nice enthusiasm for Indian tradition: 85% agree with the assertion that “Indian individuals are not good, however Indian tradition is superior to others.”

Overall, one-in-five Muslims say they have personally faced religious discrimination recently, but views vary by region

Comparatively few Muslims say their group faces “rather a lot” of discrimination in India (24%). In truth, the share of Muslims who see widespread discrimination in opposition to their group is just like the share of Hindus who say Hindus face widespread non secular discrimination in India (21%). (See Chapter 1 for a dialogue of attitudes on non secular discrimination.)

However private experiences with discrimination amongst Muslims fluctuate fairly a bit regionally. Amongst Muslims within the North, 40% say they personally have confronted non secular discrimination within the final 12 months – a lot increased ranges than reported in most different areas.

As well as, most Muslims throughout the nation (65%), together with an similar share of Hindus (65%), see communal violence as a really large nationwide drawback. (See Chapter 1 for a dialogue of Indians’ attitudes towards nationwide issues.)

Muslims in India support having access to their own religious courts

Like Hindus, Muslims favor to dwell religiously segregated lives – not simply relating to marriage and friendships, but additionally in some components of public life. Particularly, three-quarters of Muslims in India (74%) assist getting access to the prevailing system of Islamic courts, which deal with household disputes (equivalent to inheritance or divorce circumstances), along with the secular court docket system.

Muslims’ need for non secular segregation doesn’t preclude tolerance of different teams – once more just like the sample seen amongst Hindus. Certainly, a majority of Muslims who favor separate non secular courts for his or her group say non secular variety advantages India (59%), in contrast with considerably fewer of those that oppose non secular courts for Muslims (50%).

Since 1937, India’s Muslims have had the choice of resolving household and inheritance-related circumstances in formally acknowledged Islamic courts, referred to as dar-ul-qaza. These courts are overseen by non secular magistrates referred to as qazi and function underneath Shariah ideas. For instance, whereas the foundations of inheritance for many Indians are ruled by the Indian Succession Act of 1925 and the Hindu Succession Act of 1956 (amended in 2005), Islamic inheritance practices differ in some methods, together with who could be thought of an inheritor and the way a lot of the deceased particular person’s property they’ll inherit. India’s inheritance legal guidelines additionally take note of the differing traditions of different non secular communities, equivalent to Hindus and Christians, however their circumstances are dealt with in secular courts. Solely the Muslim group has the choice of getting circumstances tried by a separate system of household courts. The selections of the non secular courts, nonetheless, usually are not legally binding, and the events concerned have the choice of taking their case to secular courts if they don’t seem to be happy with the choice of the non secular court docket.

As of 2021, there are roughly 70 dar-ul-qaza in India. Most are within the states of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Goa is the one state that doesn’t acknowledge rulings by these courts, imposing its personal uniform civil code as a substitute. Dar-ul-qaza are overseen by the All India Muslim Private Legislation Board.

Whereas these courts can grant divorces amongst Muslims, they’re prohibited from approving divorces initiated via the apply referred to as triple talaq, during which a Muslim man immediately divorces his spouse by saying the Arabic/Urdu phrase “talaq” (which means “divorce”) thrice. This apply was deemed unconstitutional by the Indian Supreme Courtroom in 2017 and formally outlawed by the Lok Sabha, the decrease home of India’s Parliament, in 2019.

Latest debates have emerged round Islamic courts. Some Indians have expressed concern that the rise of dar-ul-qaza might undermine the Indian judiciary, as a result of a subset of the inhabitants will not be sure to the identical legal guidelines as everybody else. Others have argued that the rulings of Islamic courts are notably unfair to girls, though the prohibition of triple talaq might mood a few of these criticisms. In its 2019 political manifesto, the BJP proclaimed a need to create a nationwide Uniform Civil Code, saying it might improve gender equality.

Some Indian commentators have voiced opposition to Islamic courts together with extra broadly detrimental sentiments in opposition to Muslims, describing the rising numbers of dar-ul-qaza because the “Talibanization” of India, for instance.

Then again, Muslim students have defended the dar-ul-qaza, saying they expedite justice as a result of household disputes that will in any other case clog India’s courts could be dealt with individually, permitting the secular courts to focus their consideration on different considerations.

Since 2018, the Hindu nationalist get together Hindu Mahasabha (which doesn’t maintain any seats in Parliament) has tried to arrange Hindu non secular courts, referred to as Hindutva courts, aiming to play a task just like dar-ul-qaza, solely for almost all Hindu group. None of those courts have been acknowledged by the Indian authorities, and their rulings usually are not thought of legally binding.

Muslims, Hindus diverge over legacy of Partition

The seminal occasion within the fashionable historical past of Hindu-Muslim relations within the area was the partition of the subcontinent into Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan on the finish of the British colonial interval in 1947. Partition stays one of many largest actions of individuals throughout borders in recorded historical past, and in each nations the carving of latest borders was accompanied by violence, rioting and looting.

More Muslims than Hindus in India see partition of the subcontinent as a bad thing for communal relations

Greater than seven many years later, the predominant view amongst Indian Muslims is that the partition of the subcontinent was “a foul factor” for Hindu-Muslim relations. Almost half of Muslims say Partition harm communal relations with Hindus (48%), whereas fewer say it was a superb factor for Hindu-Muslim relations (30%). Amongst Muslims preferring extra non secular segregation – that’s, who say they’d not settle for an individual of a distinct religion as a neighbor – a good increased share (60%) say Partition was a foul factor for Hindu-Muslim relations.

Sikhs, whose homeland of Punjab was break up by Partition, are much more seemingly than Muslims to say Partition was a foul factor for Hindu-Muslim relations: Two-thirds of Sikhs (66%) take this place. And Sikhs ages 60 and older, whose mother and father most certainly lived via Partition, are extra inclined than youthful Sikhs to say the partition of the nation was dangerous for communal relations (74% vs. 64%).

Whereas Sikhs and Muslims usually tend to say Partition was a foul factor than a superb factor, Hindus lean in the other way: 43% of Hindus say Partition was useful for Hindu-Muslim relations, whereas 37% see it as a foul factor.

Context for the survey

Interviews have been performed after the conclusion of the 2019 nationwide parliamentary elections and after the revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s particular standing underneath the Indian Structure. In December 2019, protests in opposition to the nation’s new citizenship regulation broke out in a number of areas.

Fieldwork couldn’t be performed within the Kashmir Valley and some districts elsewhere on account of safety considerations. These places embody some closely Muslim areas, which is a part of the explanation why Muslims make up 11% of the survey’s whole pattern, whereas India’s grownup inhabitants is roughly 13% Muslim, based on the newest census information that’s publicly obtainable, from 2011. As well as, it’s doable that in another elements of the nation, interreligious tensions over the brand new citizenship regulation might have barely depressed participation within the survey by potential Muslim respondents.

Nonetheless, the survey’s estimates of non secular beliefs, behaviors and attitudes could be reported with a excessive diploma of confidence for India’s whole inhabitants, as a result of the variety of individuals residing within the excluded areas (Manipur, Sikkim, the Kashmir Valley and some different districts) will not be giant sufficient to have an effect on the general outcomes on the nationwide degree. About 98% of India’s whole inhabitants had an opportunity of being chosen for this survey.

Better warning is warranted when taking a look at India’s Muslims individually, as a definite inhabitants. The survey can not communicate to the experiences and views of Kashmiri Muslims. Nonetheless, the survey does signify the beliefs, behaviors and attitudes of round 95% of India’s total Muslim inhabitants.

These are among the many key findings of a Pew Analysis Middle survey performed face-to-face nationally amongst 29,999 Indian adults. Native interviewers administered the survey between Nov. 17, 2019, and March 23, 2020, in 17 languages. The survey coated all states and union territories of India, with the exceptions of Manipur and Sikkim, the place the quickly creating COVID-19 scenario prevented fieldwork from beginning within the spring of 2020, and the distant territories of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep; these areas are house to a few quarter of 1% of the Indian inhabitants. The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir was coated by the survey, although no fieldwork was performed within the Kashmir area itself on account of safety considerations.

This research, funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Basis, is a component of a bigger effort by Pew Analysis Middle to know non secular change and its impression on societies world wide. The Middle beforehand has performed religion-focused surveys throughout sub-Saharan Africa; the Center East-North Africa area and plenty of different nations with giant Muslim populations; Latin America; Israel; Central and Japanese Europe; Western Europe; and the US.

The remainder of this Overview covers attitudes on 5 broad matters: caste and discrimination; non secular conversion; non secular observances and beliefs; how individuals outline their non secular identification, together with what sort of conduct is taken into account acceptable to be a Hindu or a Muslim; and the connection between financial improvement and non secular observance.

Caste is one other dividing line in Indian society, and never simply amongst Hindus

Faith will not be the one fault line in Indian society. In some areas of the nation, important shares of individuals understand widespread, caste-based discrimination.

The caste system is an historic social hierarchy primarily based on occupation and financial standing. Individuals are born into a specific caste and have a tendency to maintain many elements of their social life inside its boundaries, together with whom they marry. Though the system’s origins are in historic Hindu writings, at the moment Indians practically universally establish with a caste, no matter whether or not they’re Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist or Jain.

General, the vast majority of Indian adults say they’re a member of a Scheduled Caste (SC) – sometimes called Dalits (25%) – Scheduled Tribe (ST) (9%) or Different Backward Class (OBC) (35%).

Most Indians say they belong to a Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe or Other Backward Class

Buddhists in India practically universally establish themselves in these classes, together with 89% who’re Dalits (generally referred to by the pejorative time period “untouchables”).

Members of SC/ST/OBC teams historically fashioned the decrease social and financial rungs of Indian society, and traditionally they’ve confronted discrimination and unequal financial alternatives. The apply of untouchability in India ostracizes members of many of those communities, particularly Dalits, though the Indian Structure prohibits caste-based discrimination, together with untouchability, and in latest many years the federal government has enacted financial development insurance policies like reserved seats in universities and authorities jobs for Dalits, Scheduled Tribes and OBC communities.

Roughly 30% of Indians don’t belong to those protected teams and are categorized as “Normal Class.” This consists of increased castes equivalent to Brahmins (4%), historically the priestly caste. Certainly, every broad class consists of a number of sub-castes – generally tons of – with their very own social and financial hierarchies.

Three-quarters of Jains (76%) establish with Normal Class castes, as do 46% of each Muslims and Sikhs.

Caste-based discrimination, in addition to the federal government’s efforts to compensate for previous discrimination, are politically charged matters in India. However the survey finds that almost all Indians don’t understand widespread caste-based discrimination. Only one-in-five Indians say there’s a variety of discrimination in opposition to members of SCs, whereas 19% say there’s a variety of discrimination in opposition to STs and considerably fewer (16%) see excessive ranges of discrimination in opposition to OBCs. Members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are barely extra seemingly than others to understand widespread discrimination in opposition to their two teams. Nonetheless, giant majorities of individuals in these classes do not assume they face a variety of discrimination.

Relatively few in India see widespread caste discrimination; perceptions vary by region
In the South and Northeast, many Dalits say they have faced caste discrimination

These attitudes fluctuate by area, nonetheless. Amongst Southern Indians, for instance, 30% see widespread discrimination in opposition to Dalits, in contrast with 13% within the Central a part of the nation. And among the many Dalit group within the South, much more (43%) say their group faces a variety of discrimination, in contrast with 27% amongst Southern Indians within the Normal Class who say the Dalit group faces widespread discrimination in India.

The next share of Dalits within the South and Northeast than elsewhere within the nation say they, personally, have confronted discrimination within the final 12 months due to their caste: 30% of Dalits within the South say this, as do 38% within the Northeast.

Though caste discrimination is probably not perceived as widespread nationally, caste stays a potent consider Indian society. Most Indians from different castes say they’d be prepared to have somebody belonging to a Scheduled Caste as a neighbor (72%). However a equally giant majority of Indians total (70%) say that almost all or all of their shut associates share their caste. And Indians are likely to object to marriages throughout caste strains, a lot as they object to interreligious marriages.

Most Indians say it is very important to stop people from marrying outside their caste

General, 64% of Indians say it’s very essential to cease girls of their group from marrying into different castes, and about the identical share (62%) say it is vitally essential to cease males of their group from marrying into different castes. These figures fluctuate solely modestly throughout members of various castes. For instance, practically similar shares of Dalits and members of Normal Class castes say stopping inter-caste marriages is essential.

Majorities of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Jains take into account stopping inter-caste marriage of each women and men a excessive precedence. By comparability, fewer Buddhists and Christians say it is vitally essential to cease such marriages – though for majorities of each teams, stopping individuals from marrying outdoors their caste is at the least “considerably” essential.

Folks surveyed in India’s South and Northeast see larger caste discrimination of their communities, and so they additionally increase fewer objections to inter-caste marriages than do Indians total. In the meantime, college-educated Indians are much less seemingly than these with much less schooling to say stopping inter-caste marriages is a excessive precedence. However, even inside essentially the most extremely educated group, roughly half say stopping such marriages is essential. (See Chapter 4 for extra evaluation of Indians’ views on caste.)

Non secular conversion in India

Religious groups show little change in size due to conversion

Lately, conversion of individuals belonging to decrease castes (together with Dalits) away from Hinduism – a historically non-proselytizing faith – to proselytizing religions, particularly Christianity, has been a contentious political challenge in India. As of early 2021, 9 states have enacted legal guidelines in opposition to proselytism, and a few earlier surveys have proven that half of Indians assist authorized bans on non secular conversions.

This survey, although, finds that non secular switching, or conversion, has a minimal impression on the general measurement of India’s non secular teams. For instance, based on the survey, 82% of Indians say they have been raised Hindu, and an almost similar share say they’re at the moment Hindu, exhibiting no web losses for the group via conversion to different religions. Different teams show related ranges of stability.

Adjustments in India’s non secular panorama over time are largely a results of variations in fertility charges amongst non secular teams, not conversion.

Respondents have been requested two separate inquiries to measure non secular switching: “What’s your current faith, if any?” and, later within the survey, “In what faith have been you raised, if any?” General, 98% of respondents give the identical reply to each these questions.

Hindus gain as many people as they lose through religious switching

An total sample of stability within the share of non secular teams is accompanied by little web achieve from motion into, or out of, most non secular teams. Amongst Hindus, as an example, any conversion out of the group is matched by conversion into the group: 0.7% of respondents say they have been raised Hindu however now establish as one thing else, and though Hindu texts and traditions don’t agree on any formal course of for conversion into the faith, roughly the identical share (0.8%) say they have been not raised Hindu however now establish as Hindu. Most of those new followers of Hinduism are married to Hindus.

Equally, 0.3% of respondents have left Islam since childhood, matched by an similar share who say they have been raised in different religions (or had no childhood faith) and have since develop into Muslim.

For Christians, nonetheless, there are some web positive aspects from conversion: 0.4% of survey respondents are former Hindus who now establish as Christian, whereas 0.1% are former Christians.

Three-quarters of India’s Hindu converts to Christianity (74%) are concentrated within the Southern a part of the nation – the area with the biggest Christian inhabitants. Consequently, the Christian inhabitants of the South exhibits a slight improve inside the lifetime of survey respondents: 6% of Southern Indians say they have been raised Christian, whereas 7% say they’re at the moment Christian.

Some Christian converts (16%) reside within the East as nicely (the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal); about two-thirds of all Christians within the East (64%) belong to Scheduled Tribes.

Nationally, the overwhelming majority of former Hindus who are actually Christian belong to Scheduled Castes (48%), Scheduled Tribes (14%) or Different Backward Lessons (26%). And former Hindus are more likely than the Indian inhabitants total to say there’s a variety of discrimination in opposition to decrease castes in India. For instance, practically half of converts to Christianity (47%) say there’s a variety of discrimination in opposition to Scheduled Castes in India, in contrast with 20% of the general inhabitants who understand this degree of discrimination in opposition to Scheduled Castes. Nonetheless, comparatively few converts say they, personally, have confronted discrimination on account of their caste within the final 12 months (12%).

Vast majority of Hindu converts to Christianity in India are concentrated in South

Faith essential throughout India’s non secular teams

Although their particular practices and beliefs might fluctuate, all of India’s main non secular communities are extremely observant by normal measures. For example, the overwhelming majority of Indians, throughout all main faiths, say that faith is essential of their lives. And at the least three-quarters of every main faith’s followers say they know an awesome deal about their very own faith and its practices. For instance, 81% of Indian Buddhists declare an excessive amount of data concerning the Buddhist faith and its practices.

Most Indians have a strong connection to their religion

Indian Muslims are barely extra seemingly than Hindus to contemplate faith essential of their lives (91% vs. 84%). Muslims are also modestly extra seemingly than Hindus to say they know an awesome deal about their very own faith (84% vs. 75%).

Vital parts of every non secular group additionally pray each day, with Christians among the many most certainly to take action (77%) – despite the fact that Christians are the least seemingly of the six teams to say faith is essential of their lives (76%). Most Hindus and Jains additionally pray each day (59% and 73%, respectively) and say they carry out puja each day (57% and 81%), both at house or at a temple.

Usually, youthful and older Indians, these with completely different instructional backgrounds, and women and men are related of their ranges of non secular observance. South Indians are the least more likely to say faith is essential of their lives (69%), and the South is the one area the place fewer than half of individuals report praying each day (37%). Whereas Hindus, Muslims and Christians within the South are all much less seemingly than their counterparts elsewhere in India to say faith is essential to them, the decrease price of prayer within the South is pushed primarily by Hindus: Three-in-ten Southern Hindus report that they pray each day (30%), in contrast with roughly two-thirds (68%) of Hindus in the remainder of the nation (see “Folks within the South differ from remainder of the nation of their views of faith, nationwide identification” under for additional dialogue of non secular variations in Southern India).

The survey additionally requested about three rites of passage: non secular ceremonies for delivery (or infancy), marriage and demise. Members of all of India’s main non secular communities are likely to see these rites as extremely essential. For instance, the overwhelming majority of Muslims (92%), Christians (86%) and Hindus (85%) say it is vitally essential to have a non secular burial or cremation for his or her family members.

Indians say life’s milestones should be marked by religious ceremonies

The survey additionally requested about practices particular to explicit religions, equivalent to whether or not individuals have obtained purification by bathing in holy our bodies of water, just like the Ganges River, a ceremony intently related to Hinduism. About two-thirds of Hindus have accomplished this (65%). Most Hindus even have holy basil (the tulsi plant) of their properties, as do most Jains (72% and 62%, respectively). And about three-quarters of Sikhs comply with the Sikh apply of retaining their hair lengthy (76%).

For extra on non secular practices throughout India’s non secular teams, see Chapter 7.

Close to-universal perception in God, however broad variation in how God is perceived

Almost all Indians say they imagine in God (97%), and roughly 80% of individuals in most non secular teams say they’re completely sure that God exists. The primary exception is Buddhists, one-third of whom say they don’t imagine in God. Nonetheless, amongst Buddhists who do assume there’s a God, most say they’re completely sure on this perception.

One-third of Indian Buddhists do not believe in God

Whereas perception in God is near common in India, the survey finds a variety of views about the kind of deity or deities that Indians imagine in. The prevailing view is that there’s one God “with many manifestations” (54%). However about one-third of the general public says merely: “There is just one God” (35%). Far fewer say there are numerous gods (6%).

Though Hinduism is usually known as a polytheistic faith, only a few Hindus (7%) take the place that there are a number of gods. As an alternative, the most typical place amongst Hindus (in addition to amongst Jains) is that there’s “just one God with many manifestations” (61% amongst Hindus and 54% amongst Jains).

In India, most Hindus and some members of other groups say there is one God with many manifestations

Amongst Hindus, those that say faith is essential of their lives are extra seemingly than different Hindus to imagine in a single God with many manifestations (63% vs. 50%) and fewer more likely to say there are numerous gods (6% vs. 12%).

Against this, majorities of Muslims, Christians and Sikhs say there is just one God. And amongst Buddhists, the most typical response can be a perception in a single God. Amongst all these teams, nonetheless, about one-in-five or extra say God has many manifestations, a place nearer to their Hindu compatriots’ idea of God.

Most Hindus really feel near a number of gods, however Shiva, Hanuman and Ganesha are hottest

Historically, many Hindus have a “private god,” or ishta devata: A specific god or goddess with whom they really feel a private connection. The survey requested all Indian Hindus who say they imagine in God which god they really feel closest to – exhibiting them 15 photos of gods on a card as doable choices – and the overwhelming majority of Hindus chosen multiple god or indicated that they’ve many private gods (84%). That is true not solely amongst Hindus who say they imagine in lots of gods (90%) or in a single God with many manifestations (87%), but additionally amongst those that say there is just one God (82%).

The god that Hindus mostly really feel near is Shiva (44%). As well as, about one-third of Hindus really feel near Hanuman or Ganesha (35% and 32%, respectively).

There’s nice regional variation in how shut India’s Hindus really feel to some gods. For instance, 46% of Hindus in India’s West really feel near Ganesha, however solely 15% really feel this fashion within the Northeast. And 46% of Hindus within the Northeast really feel near Krishna, whereas simply 14% within the South say the identical.

Emotions of closeness for Lord Ram are particularly sturdy within the Central area (27%), which incorporates what Hindus declare is his historic birthplace, Ayodhya. The situation in Ayodhya the place many Hindus imagine Ram was born has been a supply of controversy: Hindu mobs demolished a mosque on the location in 1992, claiming {that a} Hindu temple initially existed there. In 2019, the Indian Supreme Courtroom dominated that the demolished mosque had been constructed on prime of a preexisting non-Islamic construction and that the land needs to be given to Hindus to construct a temple, with one other location within the space given to the Muslim group to construct a brand new mosque. (For extra findings on perception in God, see Chapter 12.)

More Hindus feel close to Shiva than any other deity
Indians show high levels of religious observance across socioeconomic levels

A outstanding principle within the social sciences hypothesizes that as nations advance economically, their populations are likely to develop into much less non secular, usually resulting in wider social change. Often called “secularization principle,” it notably displays the expertise of Western European nations from the tip of World Conflict II to the current.

Regardless of speedy financial development, India’s inhabitants to this point exhibits few, if any, indicators of dropping its faith. For example, each the Indian census and the brand new survey discover just about no development within the minuscule share of people that declare no non secular identification. And faith is outstanding within the lives of Indians no matter their socioeconomic standing. Usually, throughout the nation, there’s little distinction in private non secular observance between city and rural residents or between those that are school educated versus those that usually are not. Overwhelming shares amongst all these teams say that faith is essential of their lives, that they pray usually and that they imagine in God.

Overwhelming shares say religion was very important to their family growing up and is to them personally now

Almost all non secular teams present the identical patterns. The largest exception is Christians, amongst whom these with increased schooling and people who reside in city areas present considerably decrease ranges of observance. For instance, amongst Christians who’ve a school diploma, 59% say faith is essential of their life, in contrast with 78% amongst those that have much less schooling.

The survey does present a slight decline within the perceived significance of faith in the course of the lifetime of respondents, although the overwhelming majority of Indians point out that faith stays central to their lives, and that is true amongst each youthful and older adults.

Almost nine-in-ten Indian adults say faith was essential to their household once they have been rising up (88%), whereas a barely decrease share say faith is essential to them now (84%). The sample is similar when trying solely at India’s majority Hindu inhabitants. Amongst Muslims in India, the identical shares say faith was essential to their household rising up and is essential to them now (91% every).

The states of Southern India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu and Telangana) present the most important downward development within the perceived significance of faith over respondents’ lifetimes: 76% of Indians who dwell within the South say faith was essential to their household rising up, in contrast with 69% who say faith is personally essential to them now. Slight declines within the significance of faith, by this measure, are also seen within the Western a part of the nation (Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra) and within the North, though giant majorities in all areas of the nation say faith is essential of their lives at the moment.

Throughout India’s non secular teams, widespread sharing of beliefs, practices, values

Respecting elders a key shared religious, national value in India

Regardless of a robust need for non secular segregation, India’s non secular teams share patriotic emotions, cultural values and a few non secular beliefs. For example, overwhelming shares throughout India’s non secular communities say they’re very proud to be Indian, and most agree that Indian tradition is superior to others.

Equally, Indians of various non secular backgrounds maintain elders in excessive respect. For example, nine-in-ten or extra Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Jains say that respecting elders is essential to what being a member of their non secular group means to them (e.g., for Hindus, it’s a vital a part of their Hindu identification). Christians and Sikhs additionally overwhelmingly share this sentiment. And amongst all individuals surveyed in all six teams, three-quarters or extra say that respecting elders is essential to being actually Indian.

Inside all six non secular teams, eight-in-ten or extra additionally say that serving to the poor and needy is an important a part of their non secular identification.

Past cultural parallels, many individuals combine traditions from a number of religions into their practices: Because of residing aspect by aspect for generations, India’s minority teams usually interact in practices which might be extra intently related to Hindu traditions than their very own. For example, many Muslim, Sikh and Christian girls in India say they put on a bindi (a brow marking, usually worn by married girls), despite the fact that placing on a bindi has Hindu origins.

Equally, many individuals embrace beliefs not historically related to their religion: Muslims in India are simply as seemingly as Hindus to say they imagine in karma (77% every), and 54% of Indian Christians share this view. Almost three-in-ten Muslims and Christians say they imagine in reincarnation (27% and 29%, respectively). Whereas these might appear to be theological contradictions, for a lot of Indians, calling oneself a Muslim or a Christian doesn’t preclude believing in karma or reincarnation – beliefs that would not have a standard, doctrinal foundation in Islam or Christianity.

Some religious beliefs and practices shared across religious groups in India
Indians of many religions celebrate Diwali

Most Muslims and Christians say they don’t take part in celebrations of Diwali, the Indian pageant of lights that’s historically celebrated by Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists. However substantial minorities of Christians (31%) and Muslims (20%) report that they do rejoice Diwali. Celebrating Diwali is very widespread amongst Muslims within the West, the place 39% say they take part within the pageant, and within the South (33%).

Not solely do some followers of all these religions take part in a celebration (Diwali) that consumes a lot of the nation every year, however some members of the bulk Hindu group rejoice Muslim and Christian festivals, too: 7% of Indian Hindus say they rejoice the Muslim pageant of Eid, and 17% rejoice Christmas.

Non secular identification in India: Hindus divided on whether or not perception in God is required to be a Hindu, however most say consuming beef is disqualifying

Whereas there’s some mixing of non secular celebrations and traditions inside India’s various inhabitants, many Hindus don’t approve of this. In truth, whereas 17% of the nation’s Hindus say they take part in Christmas celebrations, about half of Hindus (52%) say that doing so disqualifies an individual from being Hindu (in contrast with 35% who say an individual canbe Hindu in the event that they rejoice Christmas). A good larger share of Hindus (63%) say an individual can’t be Hindu in the event that they rejoice the Islamic pageant of Eid – a view that’s extra broadly held in Northern, Central, Japanese and Northeastern India than the South or West.

Hindus are divided on whether or not beliefs and practices equivalent to believing in God, praying and going to the temple are essential to be a Hindu. However one conduct {that a} clear majority of Indian Hindus really feel is incompatible with Hinduism is consuming beef: 72% of Hindus in India say an individual who eats beef can’t be a Hindu. That’s even increased than the chances of Hindus who say an individual can’t be Hindu in the event that they reject perception in God (49%), by no means go to a temple (48%) or by no means carry out prayers (48%).

India’s Hindus mostly say a person cannot be Hindu if they eat beef, celebrate Eid
In India, Hindus’ views toward beef consumption linked with attitudes toward segregation, nationalism

Attitudes towards beef look like a part of a regional and cultural divide amongst Hindus: Southern Indian Hindus are significantly much less seemingly than others to disqualify beef eaters from being Hindu (50% vs. 83% within the Northern and Central elements of the nation). And, at the least partially, Hindus’ views on beef and Hindu identification are linked with a desire for non secular segregation and components of Hindu nationalism. For instance, Hindus who take a robust place in opposition to consuming beef are extra seemingly than others to say they’d not settle for followers of different religions as their neighbors (49% vs. 30%) and to say it is vitally essential to be Hindu to be actually Indian (68% vs. 51%).

Relatedly, 44% of Hindus say they’re vegetarians, and a further 33% say they abstain from consuming sure meats. Hindus historically view cows as sacred, and legal guidelines pertaining to cow slaughter have been a latest flashpoint in India. On the similar time, Hindus usually are not alone in linking beef consumption with non secular identification: 82% of Sikhs and 85% of Jains surveyed say that an individual who eats beef can’t be a member of their non secular teams, both. A majority of Sikhs (59%) and absolutely 92% of Jains say they’re vegetarians, together with 67% of Jains who don’t eat root greens. (For extra information on faith and dietary habits, see Chapter 10.)

The survey persistently finds that individuals within the South (the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, and the union territory of Puducherry) differ from Indians elsewhere within the nation of their views on faith, politics and identification.

For instance, by quite a lot of measures, individuals within the South are considerably much less non secular than these in different areas – 69% say faith is essential of their lives, versus 92% within the Central a part of the nation. And 37% say they pray daily, in contrast with greater than half of Indians in different areas. Folks within the South are also much less segregated by faith or caste – whether or not that includes their friendship circles, the form of neighbors they like or how they really feel about intermarriage. (See Chapter 3.)

Hindu nationalist sentiments additionally seem to have much less of a foothold within the South. Amongst Hindus, these within the South (42%) are far much less seemingly than these in Central states (83%) or the North (69%) to say being Hindu is essential to be actually Indian. And within the 2019 parliamentary elections, the BJP’s lowest vote share got here within the South. Within the survey, simply 19% of Hindus within the area say they voted for the BJP, in contrast with roughly two-thirds within the Northern (68%) and Central (65%) elements of the nation who say they voted for the ruling get together.

Culturally and politically, individuals within the South have pushed again in opposition to the BJP’s restrictions on cow slaughter and efforts to nationalize the Hindi language. These elements might contribute to the BJP’s decrease recognition within the South, the place extra individuals favor regional events or the Indian Nationwide Congress get together.

These variations in attitudes and practices exist in a wider context of financial disparities between the South and different areas of the nation. Over time, Southern states have seen stronger financial development than the Northern and Central elements of the nation. And ladies and other people belonging to decrease castes within the South have fared higher economically than their counterparts elsewhere within the nation. Though three-in-ten individuals within the South say there’s widespread caste discrimination in India, the area additionally has a historical past of anti-caste actions. Certainly, one creator has attributed the financial development of the South largely to the flattening of caste hierarchies.

Muslim identification in India

Most Muslims in India say an individual can’t be Muslim in the event that they by no means pray or attend a mosque. Equally, about six-in-ten say that celebrating Diwali or Christmas is incompatible with being a member of the Muslim group. On the similar time, a considerable minority categorical a level of open-mindedness on who generally is a Muslim, with absolutely one-third (34%) saying an individual could be Muslim even when they don’t imagine in God. (The survey finds that 6% of self-described Muslims in India say they don’t imagine in God; see “Close to-universal perception in God, however broad variation in how God is perceived” above.)

Like Hindus, Muslims have dietary restrictions that resonate as highly effective markers of identification. Three-quarters of Indian Muslims (77%) say that an individual can’t be Muslim in the event that they eat pork, which is even increased than the share who say an individual can’t be Muslim if they don’t imagine in God (60%) or by no means attend mosque (61%).

Indian Muslims more likely to say eating pork is incompatible with Islam than not believing in God

Indian Muslims additionally report excessive ranges of non secular dedication by a number of standard measures: 91% say faith is essential of their lives, two-thirds (66%) say they pray at the least as soon as a day, and seven-in-ten say they attend mosque at the least as soon as per week – with even increased attendance amongst Muslim males (93%).

By all these measures, Indian Muslims are broadly akin to Muslims within the neighboring Muslim-majority nations of Pakistan and Bangladesh, based on a Pew Analysis Middle survey performed in these nations in late 2011 and early 2012. In Pakistan, for instance, 94% of Muslims mentioned faith is essential of their lives, whereas 81% of Bangladeshi Muslims mentioned the identical. Muslims in India are considerably extra seemingly than these elsewhere in South Asia to say they usually worship at a mosque (70% in India vs. 59% in Pakistan and 53% in Bangladesh), with the distinction primarily pushed by the share of girls who attend.

Indian Muslims are as religious as Muslims in neighboring countries, but fewer say there is just one correct way to interpret Islam

On the similar time, Muslims in India are barely much less more likely to say there’s “just one true” interpretation of Islam (72% in Pakistan, 69% in Bangladesh, 63% in India), versus a number of interpretations.

In terms of their non secular beliefs, Indian Muslims in some methods resemble Indian Hindus greater than they resemble Muslims in neighboring nations. For instance, Muslims in Pakistan and Bangladesh virtually universally say they imagine in heaven and angels, however Indian Muslims appear extra skeptical: 58% say they imagine in heaven and 53% categorical perception in angels. Amongst Indian Hindus, equally, 56% imagine in heaven and 49% imagine in angels.

Overall, Indian Muslims’ level of belief in heaven, angels resembles Indian Hindus more than other Muslims in South Asia

Majority of Muslim girls in India oppose ‘triple talaq’ (Islamic divorce)

Most Indian Muslims oppose triple talaq

Many Indian Muslims traditionally have adopted the Hanafi college of thought, which for hundreds of years allowed males to divorce their wives by saying “talaq” (which interprets as “divorce” in Arabic and Urdu) thrice. Historically, there was speculated to be a ready interval and makes an attempt at reconciliation in between every use of the phrase, and it was deeply frowned upon (although technically permissible) for a person to pronounce “talaq” thrice shortly in a row. India’s Supreme Courtroom dominated triple talaq unconstitutional in 2017, and it was banned by laws in 2019.

Most Indian Muslims (56%) say Muslim males ought to not be allowed to divorce this fashion. Nonetheless, 37% of Indian Muslims say they assist triple talaq, with Muslim males (42%) extra seemingly than Muslim girls (32%) to take this place. A majority of Muslim girls (61%) oppose triple talaq.

Extremely non secular Muslims – i.e., those that say faith is essential of their lives – are also extra seemingly than different Muslims to say Muslim males ought to be capable of divorce their wives just by saying “talaq” thrice (39% vs. 26%).

Triple talaq appears to have essentially the most assist amongst Muslims within the Southern and Northeastern areas of India, the place half or extra of Muslims say it needs to be authorized (58% and 50%, respectively), though 12% of Muslims within the South and 16% within the Northeast don’t take a place on the problem both method.

Sikhs are proud to be Punjabi and Indian

Sikhism is one in all 4 main religions – together with Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism – that originated on the Indian subcontinent. The Sikh faith emerged in Punjab within the fifteenth century, when Guru Nanak, who’s revered because the founding father of Sikhism, grew to become the primary in a succession of 10 gurus (lecturers) within the faith.

Immediately, India’s Sikhs stay concentrated within the state of Punjab. One characteristic of the Sikh faith is a particular sense of group, also called “Khalsa” (which interprets as “ones who’re pure”). Observant Sikhs differentiate themselves from others in a number of methods, together with retaining their hair uncut. Immediately, about three-quarters of Sikh women and men in India say they hold their hair lengthy (76%), and two-thirds say it is vitally essential to them that kids of their households additionally hold their hair lengthy (67%). (For extra evaluation of Sikhs’ views on passing non secular traditions on to their kids, see Chapter 8.)

Vast majority of Sikh adults in India say they keep their hair long

Sikhs are extra seemingly than Indian adults total to say they attend non secular companies daily – 40% of Sikhs say they go to the gurdwara (Sikh home of worship) each day. By comparability, 14% of Hindus say they go to a Hindu temple daily. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of Sikhs (94%) regard their holy e-book, the Guru Granth Sahib, because the phrase of God, and plenty of (37%) say they learn it, or take heed to recitations of it, daily.

Sikhs in India additionally incorporate different non secular traditions into their apply. Some Sikhs (9%) say they comply with Sufi orders, that are linked with Islam, and about half (52%) say they’ve rather a lot in widespread with Hindus. Roughly one-in-five Indian Sikhs say they’ve prayed, meditated or carried out a ritual at a Hindu temple.

Sikh-Hindu relations have been marked by violence within the Nineteen Seventies and Eighties, when calls for for a separate Sikh state protecting the Punjab areas in each India and Pakistan (also called the Khalistan motion) reached their apex. In 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards as revenge for Indian paramilitary forces storming the Sikh Golden Temple in pursuit of Sikh militants. Anti-Sikh riots ensued in Northern India, particularly within the state of Punjab.

India’s Sikhs are nearly universally proud of their national, state identities

In accordance with the Indian census, the overwhelming majority of Sikhs in India (77%) nonetheless dwell in Punjab, the place Sikhs make up 58% of the grownup inhabitants. And 93% of Punjabi Sikhs say they’re very proud to dwell within the state.

Sikhs are also overwhelmingly happy with their Indian identification. A near-universal share of Sikhs say they’re very proud to be Indian (95%), and the overwhelming majority (70%) say an individual who disrespects India can’t be a Sikh. And like India’s different non secular teams, most Sikhs don’t see proof of widespread discrimination in opposition to their group – simply 14% say Sikhs face a variety of discrimination in India, and 18% say they personally have confronted non secular discrimination within the final 12 months.

On the similar time, Sikhs are extra seemingly than different non secular communities to see communal violence as a really large drawback within the nation. Almost eight-in-ten Sikhs (78%) price communal violence as a serious challenge, in contrast with 65% of Hindus and Muslims.

The BJP has tried to financially compensate Sikhs for a number of the violence that occurred in 1984 after Indira Gandhi’s assassination, however comparatively few Sikh voters (19%) report having voted for the BJP within the 2019 parliamentary elections. The survey finds that 33% of Sikhs most popular the Indian Nationwide Congress Celebration – Gandhi’s get together.


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