“They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of latest moons. Say: They’re fastened seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage…” (Al-Baqarah 2:189)
The Islamic or Hijri calendar is predicated on a lunar month of 29 to 30 days, with the day beginning at sundown.
The brand new moon declares the arrival of a brand new month, however as a consequence of variations within the climate (rain and fog, et cetera) which will forestall a transparent view of the moon, or as a consequence of nice distances between nations, the beginning of a brand new month is neither particular nor conclusive. Due to this fact scientists have developed quite a few norms to assist predict when the primary sighting of the crescent moon will probably be, however there will probably be small discrepancies between nations when figuring out the start of the crescent heralding the month of Ramadan and the primary day of the next month, indicating the top of the quick.
The Islamic 12 months consists of twelve months: (1) Muharram, (2) Safar, (3) Rabi` Awwal, (4) Rabi` Thani, (5) Jumada Awwal, (6) Jumada Thani, (7) Rajab, (8) Sha`ban, (9) Ramadan, (10) Shawwal, (11) Dhul- Qi`dah, (12) Dhul- Hijjah.
Crucial dates within the Islamic calendar are: 1 Muharram (Islamic New 12 months); 10 Muharram (Day of `Ashura’); 27 Rajab (Israa’ and Mi`raj); 1 Ramadan (first day of the month of fasting); the final ten days of Ramadan, which embrace (Laylat Al-Qadr); 1 Shawwal (`Eid Al-Fitr); 8 – 10 Dhul-Hijjah (Hajj); 9 Dhul-Hijjah (Day of `Arafah); 10 Dhul-Hijjah (`Eid Al-Adha). Nevertheless, the dates of so me of those occasions, comparable to that of Laylat Al-Qadr and the Prophet Muhammad’s journey of Israa’ and Mi`raj, haven’t been conclusively specified, and there was some uncertainty concerning the precise date of the occasion.
4 of the twelve months are sacred: Rajab, Muharram, Dhul-Qi`dah, Dhul- Hijjah). Within the pre-Islamic interval, raids among the many Arab tribes had been forbidden and looking was halted throughout these months. Islam inherited and accredited this observe. Combating (killing) is prohibited throughout these sacred months besides in self-defense.
Because the Islamic calendar is lunar, its 12 months is 10 or 11 days shorter than the Gregorian 12 months. Which means Muslim months fall in numerous seasons. For instance, Ramadan and Hajj can fall in the summertime in addition to within the winter. It takes about 33 years for the Islamic dates to rotate by the photo voltaic seasons.
The relationship of the Islamic years was launched by the second caliph, `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, in 638 CE (16 AH) in an try to avoid all the varied conflicting relationship programs used throughout his time. After consulting his companions, he set the Hijrah—the flight of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) from Makkah to Madinah—as essentially the most applicable reference to the brand new Islamic period. The Hijrah, traditionally talking, is the central occasion of early Islam, the turning level in Islamic historical past that led to the inspiration of the primary Muslim state.
By Magda Azzam*